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Allender, M. C., Mitchell, M. A., McRuer, D., Christian, S., & Byrd, J. (2013). Prevalence, clinical signs, and natural history characteristics of frog virus 3-like infections in eastern box turtles (terrapene carolina carolina). Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 8(2), 308–320. 
Added by: Admin (06 Jan 2014 18:23:58 UTC)
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: Allender2013b
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Categories: General
Keywords: Emydidae, Habitat - habitat, Nordamerika - North America, Schildkröten - turtles + tortoises, Terrapene carolina, Veterinärmedizin - veterinary medicine, Viren - viruses
Creators: Allender, Byrd, Christian, McRuer, Mitchell
Collection: Herpetological Conservation and Biology
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Abstract     
abstract.—ranaviruses, specifically frog virus 3-like virus (fv3), have been associated with chelonian mortality events and may threaten biodiversity. to help characterize the disease ecology of fv3 in chelonians, we sampled 606 eastern Box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from tennessee, virginia, north carolina, alabama, and georgia from 2007 through 2011. We collected whole blood and swabs of the oral mucosa from 458 adults (248 female, 199 male, 1 unknown sex) and 61 juveniles. Sex and age were unknown in 87 individuals. the prevalence of infection using quantitative Pcr was 1.5% (n = 8; 95% ci = 0.8–2.9%), with half the animals diagnosed using whole blood samples and oral swabs, respectively. three females and five individuals with unknown sex were fv3-positive, which corresponded to two adults, two juveniles, and four animals with unknown age. dna concentration was significantly higher in extracts of blood samples than swab samples, except for fv3-positive animals. dna purity (a260/a280 ratio) was non-significantly more variable in extracts of swab samples than blood samples. the only clinical signs significantly associated with infection were diarrhea and bone fractures. results of this study indicate a low prevalence of disease in box turtles that is characteristic of an acute disease process. Based on this study and other published reports, eastern Box turtles are sensitive to fv3 infection, and this virus represents a potential threat to population sustainability.
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