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Arena, P. C., Steedman, C., & Warwick, C. (2012). Amphibian and reptile pet markets in the eu: An investigation and assessment This work was conducted on a professional commissioned basis at the request of the Animal Protection Agency (United Kingdom), Animal Public (Germany), Eurogroup for Animals (Belgium), Eurogroup for Wildlife and Laboratory Animals (Belgium), Fundación para. 
Added by: Sarina Wunderlich (06 Jul 2014 16:10:27 UTC)
Resource type: Report/Documentation
BibTeX citation key: Arena2012
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Categories: General
Keywords: Amphibien - amphibians, Echsen - saurians, Jura - law, Panzerechsen - crocodilia, Schildkröten - turtles + tortoises, Schlangen - snakes, Testudinidae, Testudo hermanni
Creators: Arena, Steedman, Warwick
Publisher: This work was conducted on a professional commissioned basis at the request of the Animal Protection Agency (United Kingdom), Animal Public (Germany), Eurogroup for Animals (Belgium), Eurogroup for Wildlife and Laboratory Animals (Belgium), Fundación para
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Abstract     
Wildlife markets occur in several regions of the world and take different forms. According to region, wildlife markets offer animals for various reasons including culinary, medicinal, and pet purposes. These events have attracted interest and concern from both the scientific (including biological, veterinary and medical fields), and animal welfare and species protection communities. For this investigation and report we have focussed on amphibians and reptiles at pet markets. We conducted onsite inspections at three European events: Terraristika (Hamm, Germany), the IHS Show (Doncaster, UK), and Expoterraria (Sabadell, Spain), and we also conducted a desktop study. Three primary subject areas were identified for focussed study: animal welfare; public health and safety; and invasive alien species potential. Animal welfare was assessed using scientifically established non-invasive observation of behavioural signs of stress in amphibians and reptiles. Public health and safety was assessed by analysing visitor behaviour at stalls that sold animals. Invasive alien species potential was assessed using historical invasives success data, propagule-pressure theory, tolerable thermal range (climate matching), taxonomic relationship with known invasives, popularity within the pet trade, reproductive potential, and thermal and dietary requirements. This was supplemented with an additional assessment of invasive risk which we called ‘intuitive-risk’ (IR). This mode of assessment is based on considering and balancing a variety of factors including those already mentioned plus our interpretation of ‘species overall plasticity’. We also considered several additional relevant subjects including: wild-caught versus captive-bred animals on offer; commercial and non-commercial sellers; proponents’, organisers’ and sellers’ awareness and assessment of stress and welfare at markets; the temporary nature of markets; and unusual species. Our study found that: l Animal welfare – the type and high prevalence of behavioural signs of stress observed at exotic pet markets show that a significant and major repre - sentation of both amphibians and reptiles at these events are stressed. This indicates that significant animal welfare problems are associated with exotic pet markets and that current key concerns are justified. l Human health – the established nature of amphibians and reptiles as a reservoir of known pathogens means that all animals, their containers, seller facilities, and the sellers themselves must be regarded as potential sources of zoonotic pathogen contamination. Indeed, we postulate that it would be reasonable to conclude that within a relatively brief period all public attendees potentially may be subjected to some level of contamination. l Invasive alien species – there is little doubt that a wide range of species found at exotic pet markets have the adaptive potential to become invasive across numerous regions within the EU. Our assessment is that the continued occurrence of exotic pet markets makes the regular introduction of invasive species almost assured. Accordingly, we recommend that the European Commission pursue a policy of prohibition on exotic pet markets within its boundaries, and this should cover all biological classes of vertebrate animals. In addition, authorities should compile a database of all known pet markets and their historical venues and make this information available for enforcement authorities to ensure local compliance with all prohibitive measures. Existing EU regulations and initiatives are available to implement these recommendations.
Added by: Sarina Wunderlich  
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