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Garber, S. D., & Burger, J. P. (1995). A 20-year study documenting the relationship between turtle decline and human recreation. Ecological Applications, 5, 651–689. 
Added by: Admin (23 Aug 2008 15:32:58 UTC)   Last edited by: Beate Pfau (08 Nov 2008 16:52:56 UTC)
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: Garber1995a
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Categories: General
Keywords: Clemmys, Emydidae, Glyptemys, Glyptemys insculpta, Habitat = habitat, Malaclemys, Malaclemys terrapin, Nordamerika = North America, Schildkröten = turtles + tortoises
Creators: Burger, Garber
Collection: Ecological Applications
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Malaclemys terrapin Clemmys This study documents the detrimental effects of human recreation on the North American wood turtle, Clemmys insculpta, in Connecticut. We observed two North American wood turtle populations for 20 years, from 1974 through 1993. One hundred thirty-three different wood turtles were observed a total of 1,176 times. Human and wood turtle demographics were monitored throughout this period. The data support the following conclusions: (1) following a period of apparent stability two populations of wood turtles declined, (2) the declines were more or less synchronous in both populations, (3) the beginning of each decline corresponded to the opening of the habitat for recreation, (4) an increase in mean turtle age suggests a failure of recruitment, and (5) a simultaneous reduction in numbers of adult females suggests that the failure of recruitment alone is not sufficient to explain the declines. Throughout our study the size of the forest remained the same, road building was restricted, and the quality of the air and water were constant. The wood turtle populations remained stable when people were denied access to the property. When the area was opened to human recreation (hiking, fishing), the two discrete wood turtle populations declined steadily; the total number of turtles in both populations declined by 100% in ten years. As wilderness areas become mixed-use recreation areas, wood turtle populations may suffer. We conclude that without proper management, the increasing recreational use of parks, reservoirs, and wildlife reserves will adversely affect the long-term survival of the North American wood turtle. Key Words. Clemmys insculpta conservation; extinction; fishing forest; fragmentation forest management; hiking; horseback riding; human disturbance; human recreation; landscape ecology; long-term ecological study; long-term population monitoring; North American wood turtle; park management; population decline; population ecology; recreation; wildlife management. Key Phrases. Effects of recreation on human-sensitive species; effects of recreation on turtle decline; turtle decline; turtle decline due to recreation; wood turtle decline.
Added by: Admin  Last edited by: Beate Pfau
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