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Bowen, K. D., & Gillingham, J. C. (2004). R9 species conservation assessment for wood turtle – glyptemys insculpta (leconte, 1830) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Eastern Region of the Forest Service Threatened and Endangered Species Program. 
Added by: Sarina Wunderlich (06 Jul 2014 16:10:32 UTC)
Resource type: Report/Documentation
BibTeX citation key: Bowen2004b
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Categories: General
Keywords: Batagur baska, Geoemydidae, Habitat - habitat, Hardella thurjii, Nordamerika - North America, Pangshura smithii, Pangshura tentoria, Schildkröten - turtles + tortoises
Creators: Bowen, Gillingham
Publisher: Eastern Region of the Forest Service Threatened and Endangered Species Program (Milwaukee, Wisconsin)
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The Wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) is designated as a Regional Forester Sensitive Species on the Chequamegon-Nicolet, Green Mountain, Huron-Manistee, Ottawa, Superior, and White Mountain National Forests in the Eastern Region of the Forest Service. The species occurrence is documented but not designated as sensitive on the Allegheny and Hiawatha National Forests. The purpose of this document is to provide the background information necessary to prepare Conservation Approaches and a Conservation Strategy that will include management actions to conserve the species. Wood turtles are medium-sized turtles that inhabit clear, hard-bottomed creeks, streams, and rivers. They prefer forested areas over nonforested, although small openings in the streamside canopy are essential for nesting and feeding. Wood turtles are omnivorous, are aquatic in spring and fall, and are mostly terrestrial in summer. They are dormant and aquatic in winter. Males establish linear dominance hierarchies but are not territorial. Late maturity, low fecundity, high adult survival rates, and low egg and juvenile survival rates characterize Wood turtles. Nesting occurs once a year, usually in June, and clutch size ranges from 3 to 20 eggs. Sandy, exposed, elevated soil with a southerly aspect near the river or stream is a prerequisite for nesting. Wood turtles are known or suspected to occur in all of the National Forests covered in this report, but to date formal surveys and studies have taken place only in the Huron-Manistee and Hiawatha National Forests. Element occurrences have also been documented in several other National Forests. Potential threats include damming, streambank stabilization, and intensive timber harvesting activities within 300 m of inhabited wetlands. Streambank stabilization may impact populations if affected areas are used for nesting. While Wood turtles appear to prefer woodlands with mixtures of closed and open canopy and forest edges, complete removal of forest and underbrush on a broad scale is likely to be harmful. Other threats are predation of nests, hatchlings, and adults, removal of adults from populations by humans, and human recreation. There do not appear to be any major research programs involving the Wood turtle in Region 9 at this time. Several National Forests have implemented management guidelines for the Wood turtle, generally focused on protection of nesting habitat. Surveys for Wood turtles should be done in Spring or Fall (before most vegetation emerges) or should concentrate on potential nesting areas during the June nesting season. Research priorities are locating and determining the status of populations, and implementing monitoring programs where feasible. The Wood turtle is in decline throughout its range, and recovery likely depends upon a commitment to education, habitat protection, law enforcement, and predator control.
Added by: Sarina Wunderlich  
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